Judges 10:1 - 11:40

Wednesday, May 25th, 2016

  II.     History of the Period of the Judges, 3:7 - 16:31 (continued)

 

            G. Tola’s Judgeship, 10:1-2

 

Judges 10:1 And after Abimelech there arose to defend Israel Tola the son of Puah, the son of Dodo, a man of Issachar; and he dwelt in Shamir in mount Ephraim. [Mount Ephraim is the central mountainous district of Israel occupied by the tribe of Ephraim.]

 

Judges 10:2 And he judged Israel twenty and three years, and died, and was buried in Shamir.

 

            H. Jair’s Judgeship, 10:3-5

 

Judges 10:3 And after him arose Jair, a Gileadite, and judged Israel twenty and two years.

 

Judges 10:4 And he had thirty sons that rode on thirty ass colts [i.e thirty donkeys, and they had thirty cities, which are called Havothjair unto this day, which are in the land of Gilead. [Gilead is a mountainous region east of the Jordan River occupied by the tribes of Gad and Manasseh.]

 

10:4 – (RSB) This family had considerable affluence.

 

Judges 10:5 And Jair died, and was buried in Camon.

 

            I.         Ammonite Oppression and Jephthah’s Deliverance, 10:6 - 12:7

 

There was rebellion.

 

Judges 10:6 And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the LORD, and served Baalim, and Ashtaroth, and the gods of Syria, and the gods of Zidon, and the gods of Moab, and the gods of the children of Ammon, and the gods of the Philistines, and forsook the LORD, and served not him.

 

10:6 – (RSB) Baalim and Ashtaroth are both plural. Balaam is plural for Baal and Ashtaroth is plural for Ashtareth. Ashtaroth were the female consorts of Baal. [Ryrie note on Hosea 2:13 Baal means “lord” or “owner” and was often used as a general term for god. Israel’s worship of Baal developed in three stages: (1) placing the Canaanite gods in a secondary place to the LORD (Yahweh . . .); (2) considering Yahweh as a super-Baal; (3) Canaanizing or Baalizing Yahweh worship so that the people completely forsook Yahweh.] [ Ryrie note on Judges 2:13 The worship of these false gods and goddesses included animal sacrifices, male and female prostitution, and sometimes human sacrifices.]

 

The gods of Syria included Rimmon (II Kings 5:18 ).

 

The gods of Zidon included Baal and Asherah (I Kings 16:31-33 ).

 

The gods of Moab included Chemosh (I Kings 11:7 ).

 

The gods of the children of Ammon included Molech (I Kings 11:33 ).

 

The gods of the Philistines included Dagon (Judg. 16:23).

 

There was retribution.

 

Judges 10:7 And the anger of the LORD was hot against Israel, and he sold them into the hands of the Philistines [located on the west side of Israel on the Mediterranean coast], and into the hands of the children of Ammon [located east of Reuben, Gad, and eastern Manasseh].

 

10:7 – (RSB) Regarding Ammon [Ryrie note on Judges 3:13 Ammon was E and N of Moab.] [Ryrie note on Genesis 19:31-38 – The Sodom-tainted, virgin (v. 8) daughters of Lot (he had other, married daughters who perished, v. 14), fearing they would die childless, shamelessly committed incest with their father, using wine to make him insensible to their action. The babies thus conceived were named Moab (meaning “from the father” . . .), from whom the Moabites came, and Ben-ammi (meaning “son of my people”; i.e., his father and mother were of the same family), from whom the Ammonites came. . . . The Moabites lived E of the Dead Sea . . ., while the Ammonites lived to the NE of it. . . .] [Ryrie note on Amos 1:13 The Ammonites were descendants of Lot through Ben-ammi, Lot’s son by his younger daughter. . . .]

 

Judges 10:8 And that year they vexed and oppressed the children of Israel: eighteen years, all the children of Israel that were on the other side Jordan in the land of the Amorites, which is in Gilead.

 

Judges 10:9 Moreover the children of Ammon passed over Jordan to fight also against Judah, and against Benjamin, and against the house of Ephraim; so that Israel was sore distressed.

 

There was repentance.

 

Judges 10:10 And the children of Israel cried unto the LORD, saying, We have sinned against thee, both because we have forsaken our God, and also served Baalim.

 

Judges 10:11 And the LORD said unto the children of Israel, Did not I deliver you from the Egyptians, and from the Amorites, from the children of Ammon, and from the Philistines?

 

Judges 10:12 The Zidonians also, and the Amalekites, and the Maonites, did oppress you; and ye cried to me, and I delivered you out of their hand.

 

Judges 10:13 Yet ye have forsaken me, and served other gods: wherefore I will deliver you no more.

 

Judges 10:14 Go and cry unto the gods which ye have chosen; let them deliver you in the time of your tribulation.

 

Judges 10:15 And the children of Israel said unto the LORD, We have sinned: do thou unto us whatsoever seemeth good unto thee; deliver us only, we pray thee, this day.

 

Judges 10:16 And they put away the strange gods from among them, and served the LORD: and his [i.e. the LORD’s] soul was grieved for the misery of Israel.

 

10:15-16 – (RSB) The confession was accompanied by a renunciation of the false gods. [Dr. Q. – This demonstrated that they were serious.]

 

Judges 10:17 Then the children of Ammon were gathered together, and encamped in Gilead. And the children of Israel assembled themselves together, and encamped in Mizpeh.

 

10:17 – (RSB) Mizpeh means “watchtower” and could indicate one of several places.

 

Judges 10:18 And the people and princes of Gilead said one to another, What man is he that will begin to fight against the children of Ammon? he shall be head over all the inhabitants of Gilead.

 

Judges 11:1 Now Jephthah the Gileadite was a mighty man of valour, and he was the son of an harlot: and Gilead begat Jephthah. [Gilead was a grandson of Manasseh.]

 

11:1 – (RSB) Being the son of a harlot, Jephthah lost family rights.

 

Judges 11:2 And Gilead’s wife bare him sons; and his wife’s sons grew up, and they thrust out Jephthah, and said unto him, Thou shalt not inherit in our father’s house; for thou art the son of a strange woman.

 

Judges 11:3 Then Jephthah fled from his brethren, and dwelt in the land of Tob [i.e. Tob is located north of Ammon, but its exact location is uncertain]: and there were gathered vain men [i.e. worthless men] to Jephthah, and went out with him [i.e. and followed him].

 

11:3 – (RSB) Jephthah became a kind of bandit chief in the outlying area of Tob.

 

Judges 11:4 And it came to pass in process of time, that the children of Ammon made war against Israel.

 

Judges 11:5 And it was so, that when the children of Ammon made war against Israel, the elders of Gilead went to fetch Jephthah out of the land of Tob:

 

Judges 11:6 And they said unto Jephthah, Come, and be our captain, that we may fight with the children of Ammon.

 

Judges 11:7 And Jephthah said unto the elders of Gilead, Did not ye hate me, and expel me out of my father’s house? and why are ye come unto me now when ye are in distress?

 

Judges 11:8 And the elders of Gilead said unto Jephthah, Therefore we turn again to thee now, that thou mayest go with us, and fight against the children of Ammon, and be our head over all the inhabitants of Gilead.

 

Judges 11:9 And Jephthah said unto the elders of Gilead, If ye bring me home again to fight against the children of Ammon, and the LORD deliver them before me, shall I be your head?

 

Judges 11:10 And the elders of Gilead said unto Jephthah, The LORD be witness between us, if we do not so according to thy words.

 

Judges 11:11 Then Jephthah went with the elders of Gilead, and the people made him head and captain over them: and Jephthah uttered all his words before the LORD in Mizpeh.

 

11:11 – (RSB) uttered all his words before the LORD. To solemnize the agreement between Jephthah and the elders of Gilead that they would make him their ruler.

 

Judges 11:12 And Jephthah sent messengers unto the king of the children of Ammon, saying, What hast thou to do with me, that thou art come against me to fight in my land?

 

Judges 11:13 And the king of the children of Ammon answered unto the messengers of Jephthah, Because Israel took away my land, when they came up out of Egypt, from Arnon even unto Jabbok, and unto Jordan: now therefore restore those lands again peaceably.

 

11:14-23 – (RSB) Jephthah states the correct facts concerning the Ammonites’ claim to the disputed land (v. 13). When Israel first captured it, it belonged to the Amorites, not the Ammonites.

 

Judges 11:14 And Jephthah sent messengers again unto the king of the children of Ammon:

 

Judges 11:15 And said unto him, Thus saith Jephthah, Israel took not away the land of Moab, nor the land of the children of Ammon:

 

Judges 11:16 But when Israel came up from Egypt, and walked through the wilderness unto the Red sea, and came to Kadesh;

 

Judges 11:17 Then Israel sent messengers unto the king of Edom, saying, Let me, I pray thee, pass through thy land: but the king of Edom would not hearken thereto. And in like manner they sent unto the king of Moab: but he would not consent: and Israel abode in Kadesh.

 

Judges 11:18 Then they went along through the wilderness, and compassed [i.e. bypassed, went around] the land of Edom, and the land of Moab, and came by the east side of the land of Moab, and pitched on the other side of Arnon [i.e. the other side {i.e. the north side} of the Arnon River], but came not within the border of Moab: for Arnon [i.e. the Arnon River] was the border of Moab.

 

Judges 11:19 And Israel sent messengers unto Sihon king of the Amorites, the king of Heshbon; and Israel said unto him, Let us pass, we pray thee, through thy land into my place.

 

Judges 11:20 But Sihon trusted not Israel to pass through his coast: but Sihon gathered all his people together, and pitched in Jahaz, and fought against Israel.

 

Judges 11:21 And the LORD God of Israel delivered Sihon and all his people into the hand of Israel, and they smote them: so Israel possessed all the land of the Amorites, the inhabitants of that country.

 

Judges 11:22 And they possessed all the coasts of the Amorites, from Arnon even unto Jabbok, and from the wilderness even unto Jordan.

 

Judges 11:23 So now the LORD God of Israel hath dispossessed the Amorites from before his people Israel, and shouldest thou possess it?

 

Judges 11:24 Wilt not thou possess that which Chemosh thy god giveth thee to possess? So whomsoever the LORD our God shall drive out from before us, them will we possess.

 

11:24 – (RSB) Chemosh was the god of Moab, and Milcom (or Molech) of Ammon, though Molech may be a title for Chemosh, who was worshiped by both peoples (since they had much in common).

 

Judges 11:25 And now art thou any thing better than Balak the son of Zippor, king of Moab? did he ever strive against Israel, or did he ever fight against them,

 

11:25 – (RSB) Moab made no attempt to regain the territory Israel captured from Sihon until some 300 years later.

 

Judges 11:26 While Israel dwelt in Heshbon and her towns, and in Aroer and her towns, and in all the cities that be along by the coasts of Arnon, three hundred years? why therefore did ye not recover them within that time?

 

Judges 11:27 Wherefore I have not sinned against thee, but thou doest me wrong to war against me: the LORD the Judge be judge this day between the children of Israel and the children of Ammon.

 

Judges 11:28 Howbeit the king of the children of Ammon hearkened not unto the words of Jephthah which he sent him.

 

Judges 11:29 Then the Spirit of the LORD came upon Jephthah, and he passed over Gilead, and Manasseh, and passed over Mizpeh of Gilead, and from Mizpeh of Gilead he passed over unto the children of Ammon.

 

Judges 11:30 And Jephthah vowed a vow unto the LORD, and said, If thou shalt without fail deliver the children of Ammon into mine hands,

 

Judges 11:31 Then it shall be, that whatsoever cometh forth of the doors of my house to meet me, when I return in peace from the children of Ammon, shall surely be the LORD’S, and I will offer it up for a burnt offering.

 

Judges 11:32 So Jephthah passed over unto the children of Ammon to fight against them; and the LORD delivered them into his hands.

 

Judges 11:33 And he smote them from Aroer, even till thou come to Minnith, even twenty cities, and unto the plain of the vineyards, with a very great slaughter. Thus the children of Ammon were subdued before the children of Israel.

 

There was restitution.

 

Judges 11:34 And Jephthah came to Mizpeh unto his house, and, behold, his daughter came out to meet him with timbrels and with dances: and she was his only child; beside her he had neither son nor daughter.

 

Judges 11:35 And it came to pass, when he saw her, that he rent his clothes, and said, Alas, my daughter! thou hast brought me very low, and thou art one of them that trouble me: for I have opened my mouth unto the LORD, and I cannot go back.

 

11:35 – (RSB) The joy of victory was suddenly turned to sorrow when Jephthah saw his daughter and remembered his vow (v. 31).

 

Judges 11:36 And she said unto him, My father, if thou hast opened thy mouth unto the LORD, do to me according to that which hath proceeded out of thy mouth; forasmuch as the LORD hath taken vengeance for thee of thine enemies, even of the children of Ammon.

 

Judges 11:37 And she said unto her father, Let this thing be done for me: let me alone two months, that I may go up and down upon the mountains, and bewail my virginity [i.e. weep because of my virginity, which suggests because I will never marry], I and my fellows [i.e. my friends and I].

 

Judges 11:38 And he said, Go. And he sent her away for two months: and she went with her companions [i.e. with her friends], and bewailed her virginity [i.e. wept because of her virginity or wept because she would never marry] upon the mountains.

 

11:38 – (RSB) bewailed her virginity. i.e., she would never bear children.

 

Judges 11:39 And it came to pass at the end of two months, that she returned unto her father, who did with her according to his vow which he had vowed: and she knew no man. And it was a custom in Israel,

 

Judges 11:40 That the daughters of Israel went yearly to lament the daughter of Jephthah the Gileadite four days in a year.

 

11:39 – (RSB) Some understand that Jephthah’s daughter was only dedicated to the service of God in a life of celibacy and not actually slain. Others hold that she was killed according to Canaanite practices, which Jephthah had embraced.