Matthew 10:1-6

Sunday, October 2nd, 2016

THE COMMISSION TO THE TWELVE

INTRODUCTION:

 

The deeds of the King include the narrative about Jesus (8:1 - 9:38) and the commission of the twelve (10:1-42) followed by the concluding statement, And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these parables, he departed thence (11:1).

We see –

    I.     THE CALL OF THE TWELVE DISCIPLES – 10:1-4

 

In verse 1 Jesus gives His twelve disciples authority over demons to expel them and to heal every kind of sickness and disease.

 

In verses 2-4 Jesus’ twelve disciples are named.

 

Following their being sent out on this occasion, these twelve were known as apostles.

 

Matthew 10:1-4 – (1) And when he had called unto him his twelve disciples, he gave them power against unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal all manner of sickness and all manner of disease. (2) Now the names of the twelve apostles are these; The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother; (3) Philip, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publican; James the son of Alphaeus, and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus; (4) Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him.

 

In verse 1 Jesus gives His twelve disciples authority over demons to expel them and to heal every kind of sickness and disease.

 

And when he had called unto him his twelve disciples is understood in the sense of after He had called unto (Him) His twelve disciples (or after He had summoned His twelve disciples).

 

He (i.e. Jesus) gave them (i.e. gave the twelve disciples) power against unclean spirits.

 

Power speaks of the right to command or control in the sense of authority or absolute power.

 

Against unclean spirits is over demons or over evil spirits.

 

To cast them out indicates the kind of power or authority Jesus gave His twelve disciples. It shows the purpose or intended result of Jesus giving them authority over these unclean spirits.

 

It was in order that, for the purpose of, with a view toward, or so that they might be enabled to be casting out unclean spirits.

 

The tense of to cast . . . out implies ongoing or repeated action in the sense of to be casting out.

 

In addition to casting out evil spirits, Jesus also gave His twelve disciples power to heal all manner of sickness and all manner of disease, i.e. to heal every sickness and every disease. It does not mean that they were enabled to heal every sick person. It means that there was no disease which they would encounter that they could not heal. Similarly, in Matthew 9:35 Jesus healed every sickness and every disease among the people.

 

Sickness is physical disease; whereas, disease suggests bodily weakness in the sense of debility, weakness, or sickness.

 

In verses 2-4 Jesus’ twelve disciples are named.

 

Matthew 10:2 Now the names of the twelve apostles [note the change from “disciples” to “apostles”] are these; The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother.

 

Now transitions from the thought of Jesus summoning His twelve disciples and giving them power to cast out demons and to heal every sickness and disease to giving their names.

 

The names of the twelve apostles introduces each of the twelve disciples Jesus sent out but refers to them as apostles rather than as disciples. They are not only disciples in the sense that they followers of Jesus, but now they are apostles in the sense that they have been sent on a mission by Jesus.

 

The first is simply first. It suggests that Peter was the most prominent of the apostles. He was often the spokesman for the others during Jesus’ earthly ministry and appears prominently in the first chapters in Acts.

 

Simon, who is called Peter was a fisherman from Bethsaida near the Sea of Galilee. He was brought to Jesus by his brother Andrew in John 1:40-42 , and Jesus changed his name from Simon to Peter.

 

John 1:40-4240 One of the two which heard John [i.e. John the Baptist] speak, and followed him, was Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother. 41 He first findeth his own brother Simon, and saith unto him, We have found the Messias, which is, being interpreted [i.e. which, when translated, is], the Christ. 42 And he brought him to Jesus. And when Jesus beheld him, he said, Thou art Simon the son of Jona: thou shalt be called Cephas [i.e. an Aramaic name for Peter], which is by interpretation [i.e. which, when translated, is], A stone.

 

Jesus called Peter to be a fisher of men.

Matthew 4:18-2018 And Jesus, walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers [i.e. fishermen]. 19 And he saith unto them, Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men. 20 And they straightway left their nets, and followed him.

 

Peter would become the leader among the apostles in the early chapters of Acts and before his death would write two New Testament epistles.

 

Andrew, his brother (i.e. Peter’s brother). Andrew was Peter’s brother and fishing partner. He brought Peter to Jesus in John 1 ; but Andrew is not nearly as prominent as Peter.

 

James, the son of Zebedee as well as John his brother (i.e. James’ brother) were fishing partners of Andrew and Peter.

 

They left the family business to follow Jesus.

 

Matthew 4:21-2221 And going on from thence, he [i.e. Jesus] saw other two brethren, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in a ship with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and he called them. 22 And they immediately left the ship and their father, and followed him.

 

Together with Peter, James and John formed an inner circle among the twelve apostles. These three were privileged to be the only ones who accompanied Jesus on several occasions throughout Jesus’ public ministry, including the raising of Jairus’ daughter (Luke 8:54 ), the transfiguration (Luke 9:28 ), and the Garden of Gethsemane (Matthew 26:37 ).

 

James would be beheaded in AD 44, but John would outlive all the other apostles and write a gospel, three epistles, and the Book of Revelation, all of which have been preserved in the New Testament.

 

At the crucifixion, Jesus entrusted His mother Mary to John’s care; and John took her to his own home.

 

In verse 3 the names of Jesus’ twelve disciples begun in verse 2 is continued.

 

Matthew 10:3 Philip, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publican; James the son of Alphaeus, and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus.

 

Not much is known of Philip in the pages of the New Testament. He was from Bethsaida, and Jesus called him. He went and found Nathanael, referred to in this verse as Bartholomew.

 

John 1:43-5143 The day following Jesus would go forth into Galilee, and findeth Philip, and saith unto him, Follow me. 44 Now Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter. 45 Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph. 46 And Nathanael said unto him, Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth? Philip saith unto him, Come and see. 47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him, and saith of him, Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile! 48 Nathanael saith unto him, Whence knowest thou me? Jesus answered and said unto him, Before that Philip called thee, when thou wast under the fig tree, I saw thee. 49 Nathanael answered and saith unto him, Rabbi, thou art the Son of God; thou art the King of Israel. 50 Jesus answered and said unto him, Because I said unto thee, I saw thee under the fig tree, believest thou? thou shalt see greater things than these. 51 And he saith unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Hereafter ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man.

 

Thomas is called Didymus, which means twin. Little is known of Thomas other than that he was absent from the other apostles when Jesus appeared to them on Sunday evening, the same day He was raised from the dead, and doubted the reality of the resurrection until a week later when Jesus appeared a second time, this time with Thomas present.

 

Matthew the publican (i.e. the tax collector) is also called Levi. He left his tax office when Jesus called him.

 

James the son of Alphaeus is also known as James the Less. Little is known of him.

 

Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus, is Lebbaeus who is also called Thaddaeus. It appears that he is also known as Judas, not Iscariot, and Judas (the brother {or the son}) of James. Nothing is known of him other than that he appears in the lists of the apostles.

 

In verse 4 the names of Jesus’ twelve disciples begun in verse 2 is concluded.

 

Matthew 10:4 Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him.

 

Simon the Canaanite is also called Simon Zelotes (i.e. Simon the zealot or Simon the patriot). It distinguishes him from Simon Peter.

 

Finally, there is Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him (i.e. who also betrayed Jesus). Following the last supper, Judas Iscariot betrayed Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane with a kiss. He subsequently returned the betrayal money and hanged himself.

Next, we see –

  II.     THE MISSION OF THE TWELVE APOSTLES TO ISRAEL – 10:5-13

 

This section actually continues through verse 33, but we’ll only go through verse 13 in this message. In verse 5 Jesus sent His twelve apostles out but instructed them not to go into the way of the Gentiles or into a Samaritan city.

 

Matthew 10:5 These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded them, saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not.

 

These twelve Jesus sent forth implies Jesus sent these twelve apostles out.

 

The Greek word translated sent forth is the word from which the noun apostle comes. As a result, beginning with their being sent out by Jesus on this occasion, these twelve men became known as the twelve apostles.

 

And commanded them, saying introduces the instructions Jesus gave His apostles, which continue through verse 23.

 

Go not as well as enter ye not are commandments, both of which forbid their actions in their very beginnings in the sense of do not begin to go and do not begin to enter.

 

Into the way of the Gentiles means that they were not to go to the Gentiles; whereas, into any city of the Samaritans means that they were also not to go to the Samaritans. Jesus’ instructions were intended for this trip. Regardless of their need for salvation, it was not God’s will for the apostles to go to the Gentiles or Samaritans at this time. Later on, He would tell them to proclaim the gospel in the entire world.

 

Matthew 28:19-20 – (19) Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: (20) Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.

 

Mark 16:15 And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature.

 

Luke 24:45-47 – (45) Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the scriptures, (46) And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day: (47) And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem.

 

Acts 1:8 But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you: and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth.

 

Back to Matthew 10:6

Matthew 10:6 But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.

 

But introduces a statement in mild contrast to, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not.

 

Go means be going, be proceeding, or be traveling.

 

To the lost sheep of the house of Israel means that the twelve were to go to Israelites who were not saved.

 

The tense of lost indicates that these Israelites were in a state of being lost, i.e. of being unsaved.

 

House of Israel is used in the sense of nation of Israel.

 

They were a large group of people descended from a common ancestor, i.e. from Israel, who was also known as Jacob.

 

Rather than going to the Gentiles or Samaritans, the twelve apostles were to go to the Israelites.

CONCLUSION:

 

Jesus came to provide salvation for all humanity. His message went to the Jews first and would eventually go to the Gentiles.

 

He provided salvation for all humanity when He died on the cross and there shed His blood to pay for the sins of everyone including us.

 

Have you trusted Him as your personal Savior?

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